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What to do after a nuclear accident ?

We have prepared an article for you that deals with the nuclear threat. It summarizes comprehensive information on how to be prepared for a nuclear explosion, whether it is an accident or explosion of a nuclear power plant or a direct threat to the population by an atomic bomb. As they say, luck favors the prepared. Therefore, be prepared!

THREE PRINCIPLES OF WHAT NOT TO DO IN A NUCLEAR DISASTER

Here are three principles you should follow in the event of a nuclear disaster. It can significantly increase your chances of survival.

  • If you are near a nuclear explosion, never look into it!
  • If you are affected by radioactive radiation, never use detergents with conditioner when showering!
  • If you are in a shelter, never go outside before 24 hours!

HOW TO PREPARE FOR A POSSIBLE NUCLEAR EXPLOSION?

In connection with Russia’s threats and the direct threat to the nuclear power plant in Ukrainian Zaporozhye, which was shelled by the Russian army with its tanks on 03/04/2022, one must be prepared for anything. For these reasons, we have researched recommendations from the world’s leading experts dealing with defense against a nuclear attack.

1. IDENTIFY POTENTIAL HIDING PLACES

Therefore, your first task should be to identify potential hiding places. Find the best shelter location near where you spend a lot of time, such as home, work, and school. If you regularly commute to other places, find out about the shelters that are along the way.

The best shelter is underground and in the middle of larger buildings.

Outdoor spaces, vehicles or any mobile homes do not provide adequate shelter from radioactive fallout. Look for basements or basements of large multistory buildings.

2. PREPARE YOUR EVACUATION LUGGAGE AND EMERGENCY EQUIPMENT

In case of a potential threat, you should have an evacuation bag and a set of emergency equipment ready. Everything should be sized for at least 72 hours (3 days), but preferably 168 hours (7 days). In your emergency survival evacuation bag, pack:

FOOD AND LIQUIDS:

  • bottled drinking water in light plastic bottles,
  • durable foods – ideally caloric (vacuum/sterilized).

CLOTHING AND PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT:

  • radiation protective suit,
  • full face mask against radiation,
  • spare clothes and underwear,
  • raincoat,
  • blanket, sleeping bag,
  • mat and pillow under the head.

PERSONAL DOCUMENTS AND SMALL VALUABLES:

  • identity card – identity card, driver’s license, passport, birth certificate, health insurance card,
  • cash, payment cards, securities, gold, jewelry, precious stones, shares, investments, etc.,
  • insurance contracts, building savings, real estate documents and other important documents.

SURVIVAL GEAR:

  • knife and scissors
  • matches, lighter, flint,
  • weapons at your disposal.

MEDICINES AND HYGIENE SUPPLIES:

  • iodine tablets – protects the thyroid gland from receiving radioiodine from the air
  • essential medicines you are taking
  • pain and fever pills,
  • bandages, plasters, tourniquets,
  • soap, disinfectant, sterile gloves,
  • towel, toilet paper,
  • glasses and other essentials.

COMMUNICATION DEVICE:

  • mobile phone with charger,
  • radio and walkie-talkie – ideally with a hand crank,
  • spare energy source – battery, power bank,
  • flashlight, flashlight, headlamp.

OTHER IMPORTANT THINGS:

Also keep in mind each person’s specific needs, including medications. Don’t forget the needs of pets, if you have any. Make sure you don’t forget spare power sources (batteries) and chargers for phones and other important devices that you may need.

HOW DOES A NUCLEAR EXPLOSION SPREAD AND WHAT ARE THE RISKS OF RADIATION?

When a nuclear power plant explodes or a nuclear bomb explodes, it spreads in the following way: first there is a fireball, followed by a shock wave, then radiation and radioactive fallout.

A FIREBALL

Whether a nuke is launched from the air or from the ground, the initial threat is a fireball that can reach temperatures of tens of millions of degrees. According to assumptions and an online simulation created by Alex Wellerstein at the Stevens Institute of Technology, a 10-kilogram-ton bomb, the same as the one used in Hiroshima, would have produced a fireball with a radius of 150 to 200 meters.

SHOCKWAVE

The fireball is followed by a shock wave or air blast. If a 10 kiloton nuke exploded in mid-air, it would destroy most buildings and kill almost every living thing within 750 meters of the explosion site. If the detonation occurs on the ground, the effect is reduced by about 23 percent.

RADIATION

If you survive the fireball and shockwave, you have to avoid the radiation that comes very quickly. 

Exposure to a 10-kilogram-ton atomic bomb at a distance of about 1.2 km will kill up to 90 percent of all people without medical treatment. About another 0.4 km away, your chances of survival increase, but you’ll suffer third-degree burns that you probably won’t feel because the radiation also kills your pain receptors.

RADIOACTIVE FALLOUT

If a nuclear attack comes from the ground, all the material and debris is irradiated and thrown into the air by an explosion, which we know as a classic mushroom cloud. 

Windy conditions can then cause radioactive fallout to be carried tens to hundreds of kilometers away, depending on the size of the bomb and the strength of the wind. As the fallout falls back to earth, it irradiates people who don’t hide, causing very serious health complications.

About 15% of the energy released in the initial explosion and fallout of an atomic bomb is high-frequency ionizing radiation. Unlike other forms of radiation, such as visible light and microwaves, ionizing radiation is fast and energetic enough to remove electrons from molecules, including those that make up the cells in your body. 

This radiation randomly damages the DNA in human cells, like being shot with millions of tiny pins. UV rays are borderline ionizing, which is why you can get skin cancer when you sunbathe. 

If ionizing radiation takes enough electrons from your DNA, or if you’re unlucky and hit the wrong places in your genome, the genes that control cell growth can begin to function abnormally. Some cells divide uncontrollably, causing tumors, leukemia, or other cancers. The risk is particularly high in children.

INSTRUCTIONS FOR WHAT TO DO AFTER A NUCLEAR EXPLOSION

1. DRESS IN WHITE CLOTHING!

If you have received information that there has been an explosion of a nuclear power plant near you, wear white or at least light-colored clothing. White clothing reflects the radiation and energy of the explosion more, while dark clothing absorbs it. Therefore, if you are dressed in white or light-colored clothing at the moment of the explosion, your chances of survival increase a little.

Ideally, it is best to wear a special protective suit that is designed directly against radioactive radiation. If you also have a full-face mask with filtration against radioactivity, put it on to be safe.

2. LOOK FOR COVER. YOU HAVE 15 MINUTES!

If you see a nuclear flash, the first thing you need to do is get behind the barrier in case the shock wave comes. Then move as quickly as possible to the interior of the nearest building.

If you survive the pressure and shock wave, you are in a situation where there is hope. If you are close to an explosion, you need to get to cover as soon as possible. At best, you have 15 to 20 minutes before the fallout begins to return to the ground. If you are further away from the blast site, you will probably have a little more time, but the reality is that you will not have time to assess the situation.

Don’t wait for anything and hide immediately. Get into the nearest building to avoid the radiation. Brick and concrete buildings are best.

Thickness of materials needed to protect against 99% of radiation:

  • Steel: 13 cm
  • Brick: 40 cm
  • Compacted soil: 60 cm

Glass and most metals won’t give you much protection. If the blast is ground-based, you can also protect yourself by getting above the blast, which is usually higher than the ninth floor of a building.

If you are stuck outside with radioactive fallout falling around you, cover your nose and mouth with a cloth and close your eyes. If you have any gas mask or respirator, use it. Then immediately get to a shelter, where you should immediately remove the outer layer of clothing, including respiratory protection, and seal it in plastic bags at least twice. Put radioactive waste in a special place as far away from you as possible. The more you secure it, the better.

3. TAKE A SHOWER OR WASH YOURSELF

If you are hit by radioactive fallout, take a shower as soon as possible! If possible, avoid touching your eyes, nose and mouth.

Do not use disinfectant wipes or other disinfectants on the skin – it will not help.
Under no circumstances should you use hair washes with conditioner as this could trap the radiation in your hair.

The danger of falling is relatively short-term. Radioactivity is reduced by 90% after seven hours. Two days later, usually only 1% of the original radiation remains. Still, it is recommended to stay in shelter for at least one more day.

If you will be in the basement or at least in the middle of the building, stay away from the exterior walls and roof. Try to keep a distance of at least 2 meters between other people. If possible, wear a mask or respirator if you are in a shelter with people who are not part of your household. They should not be worn by children under two years of age, people who have breathing difficulties and those who cannot remove respiratory protection devices themselves.

4. STAY IN COVER. IDEALLY UNTIL FURTHER NOTICE!

Stay sheltered, ideally until further notice. Stay in it for at least 24 hours or unless otherwise instructed by local authorities. Maintain social distancing of at least 2 meters between people who are not part of your household and wear a mask or respirator at all times.

5. BE IN TOUCH WITH THE WORLD AROUND YOU

Tune into any available medium (radio, cell phone, walkie-talkie) and get official information such as when it is safe to return and where you should go.

After a nuclear explosion, a battery powered or hand crank radio is more likely to work. Therefore, include it in your evacuation luggage. Cell phone calls, as well as text messages, television and Internet services may be interrupted or unavailable. Expect to!

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